Understanding Diet Nutrition and Physical Activity

Sunday, August 27, 2017

Understanding Diet Nutrition and Physical Activity

Understanding Diet Nutrition and Physical Activity. Diet and physical activity have related to create healthy life. In this article will describe the two concept about diet nutrition and physical activity.

Understanding Diet Nutrition

The purpose of diet is to supply energy and nutrients required for optimal health. Energy intake must be balanced against physical activity. Over 800 million humans are chronically energy deficient, but obesity is rampant in many industrialized societies.


Fat is a concentrated energy source, but in affluent populations, excess fat promotes chronic degenerative diseases. In such circumstances, total fat intake should be reduced, mainly by decreases in saturated and trans fatty acids. In energy-deficient populations, an increased fat intake may be necessary to enhance energy availability and to insure absorption of fat soluble vitamins, but such increases should avoid adding saturated fats where practicable. All populations need essential polyunsaturated fatty acids for mental and cardiovascular health. An omega–6:omega–3 fatty acid ratio of 4:1 or less appears desirable.
Understanding Diet Nutrition and Physical Activity
Carbohydrate containing foods and soluble and insoluble fiber are needed for energy intake and normal bodily function.

Protein intake should be adequate for normal growth and development and in adults for maintenance of body structures.


Adequate balanced micronutrient intake should be provided commensurate with emerging understanding of their need. Since the most extensive nutritional influences throughout the world are related to inadequacies of micronutrients, special attention should be directed to correcting these deficiencies: 2 thousand million persons are anemic and 1 thousand million are at risk of iodine deficiency.

40 million children suffer vitamin A deficiency. Understanding of micronutrient functions is currently increasing, and health workers should keep up-to-date with this new knowledge regarding both deficiencies and optimal requirements, e.g. the need for unitary ratios of calcium and magnesium in the diet. The variety of foods in the diets helps to maintain adequate micronutrient intake. Most populations would benefit from an increased intake of fruits and vegetables.

Understanding Physical Activity

A wealth of scientific reports points to the inescapable conclusion that human fitness and health improve when sedentary individuals begin to exercise.

Although low physical activity levels most frequently occur in more industrialized, affluent nations, this behavior is becoming increasingly common in developing countries as well. Because mechanization and industrialization have reduced occupational physical activity levels, a need exists to supplement with additional daily physical activities designed to improve health and fitness.

A wide variety of fitness parameters, including aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, coordination, flexibility and body composition improve with increases in activity levels. Perhaps more importantly, indices of human health also improve.

Three of the most common chronic degenerative diseases of westernized nations (hypertension, coronary heart disease, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) are increasingly being recognized as diseases of insulin resistance. In all three cases, physical activity clearly has been shown to reduce the severity, and outcome of these diseases.

Physical activity also has a well-known role in preventing and reducing obesity and also exerts a beneficial influence upon insulin metabolism. Furthermore, increased levels of physical activity positively impact virtually all chronic diseases, including, but not limited to stroke, peripheral artery disease, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, and some forms of cancer. For previously sedentary individuals, even nontaxing physical activities such as walking, gardening, bicycling, and swimming can elicit improved health, and reduce all causes of morbidity and mortality. Table 1 lists the types of physical activity.
Understanding Diet Concept and Physical Activity
Sports training physical activities should include daily training programs in preparation for competition. Health-promoting physical activities aim at promoting growth, improving body functions and protecting from illness.

Exercise prescription (regimen) as a means of treating or reversing various diseases should be considered as an essential therapeutic component.

Education Nutrition and Physical Activity

Education about nutrition and physical activity needs to be adapted to each country and to different populations and cultures. Education about the beneficial physical and psychological effects of proper nutrition and physical activity in health and disease needs to be directed at all age groups – children, adults, and the elderly – since research has shown that awareness of the benefits of physical activity is correlated with actual physical activity.

Education needs to address the detrimental effects of sedentary life-styles, undernutrition and malnutrition, in particular for children. Education about opportunities to obtain proper nutrition and to carry out physical activity is important in view of findings that actual increases in elective physical activity depend on accessibility.

Education should reach people through various channels – the mass media, print, television, and radio – at worksites, and in the community in order to reach everybody in the population. Another means to achieve education would be through role models in the family, schools, sports, and entertainment. Institutions such as schools can set examples for proper nutrition and physical activity. The food and sports foods industry needs to be cognizant of the scientific evidence regarding optimal nutrition and physical activity levels. Another means of education would be the labelling of the nutritional composition of all foods sold.

There is a particular need for education of health professionals and health workers, nutrition and sport scientists, and educators.

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