Plyometrics Exercises To Increase Explosive Muscle (Power)

Wednesday, August 30, 2017

Plyometrics Exercises To Increase Explosive Muscle (Power)

Plyometrics Exercises To Increase Explosive Muscle (Power). The plyometrics exercise is one of the favorite exercises. Especially in sports that require the ability of muscular explosive power. The history of this exercise began in 1960 Yuri Veroshanki a Russian athletic trainer using the plyometrics training method to his jumping athlete and experiencing tremendous success in the game.

Plyometrics began to be a concern during 1972 during the Munich Olympics, West Germany. Russia with Valery Borzov, winning in the 100m run with a record of 10.00 seconds and winning in the 200m run, the success was due to contributions from the use of the plyometrics training method, which in the end Yuri Veroshanki was called the 'father' of plyometrics research (Godfrey, 2006).

Understanding plyometrics

The term plyometrics was first raised in 1975 by Fred Wilt one of America's athletic trainers. The term 'plyometrics' is a combination of Latin-derived words, 'plyo' and 'metrics' which means measurable improvement (Chu, 1992).

Although the term began to be introduced since the mid-1960s or 1970s, but Bompa states that plyometrics exercise has been around for a long time. We know for certain that all the children in the world have done jump rope or jump scotch, other game forms like plyometrics.

Definition of Plyometrics

Plyometrics are exercises that aim to connect the movement of speed and power to produce explosive movements. This term is often used in connecting repetitive jump motions or stretch reflex exercises to produce an explosive reaction.

Radcliffe and Farentinos stated that plyometrics exercise is a highly specialized exercise, a very strong muscle contraction that is a response to the dynamic loading or rapid strain of the muscles involved. plyometrics is also referred to as a stretching reflex or a myotatic reflex or a muscle contraction reflex (Radcliffe, 1985).

Chu said that plyometrics exercise is an exercise that allows muscles to reach maximum strength in the shortest time possible. Another term of plyometrics practice is 'stretch-shortening cycle'. According to Dintiman, Ward, and Tellez exercises plyometrics using the power of gravity to store energy in the muscles and immediately release the opposite energy.

From some of the above definitions, it can be concluded that plyometrics exercise is a method of exercise to increase muscular explosive power with a combination of isometric and isotonic exercise that uses dynamic loading. A sudden stretch before the muscle contracts back, or an exercise that allows the muscles to reach maximum strength in the shortest time possible.

The concept of plyometrics exercises uses early strain on the muscles rapidly before the eccentric contraction of the same muscle. Radcliffe and Farentinos divide the three groups of plyometrics exercises, namely:
(1) exercises for lower movement members (hips and legs).
(2) exercises for the torso.
(3) exercises for upper limbs.

The volume of plyometrics exercises can be distinguished according to the ability of the athlete by foot contact, chu suggests the following exercise volume:

Table of contact number of feet per season.


LEVEL
Beginning
Intermediate
Advanced
Intensity
Off-season
60 - 100
100 - 150
120 – 200
Low-Mod
Preseason
100 - 250
150 - 300
150 - 450
Mod-High
In-season
Depends on sport
Moderate
Championship season
Recovery only
Mod-High

Forms of Plyometrics Exercises

The forms of plyometrics practice are so diverse that they are using one leg or two feet as the pedestal as below.
One-legged reactive jumps over boxes
One-legged reactive jumps over boxes
Reactive jump from a high box
Reactive jump from a high box
The intensity of the exercise on the plyometrics method is the control of the type of exercise displayed, the plyometric motion ranging from a simple distance to complex motion and higher pressure. Chu tries to illustrate the intensity scale for the plyometrics exercise as follows:
Skala Intensitas Latihan plyometrics
Plyometrics Exercise Intensity Scale

Implementation Jumps in place is started by standing in one position, with two legs or a foot and then jumping back to the original position. Commonly used techniques are: two-foot ankle hop, single foot side-to-side ankle hop, side-to-side ankle hop, hip-twist ankle hop, tuck jump with knees up, tuck jump with heel kick, split squat jump, 5-5-5 squat jump, split squat with cycle, split pike jump, straight pike jump.

The jump place used is a two-foot ankle hop. That starts with standing on two shoulder-width legs and upright body positions, used only for momentum, hop jumps in one place. Extend the ankle maximally on one hop leap up.
Jumps-in-place dengan two-foot ankle hop
Jumps-in-place dengan two-foot ankle hop

The next stage is standing jumps, ie jump ahead with the variation of the suggested technique is standing long jump, standing jump and reach, standing jump over barrier, lateral jump with two feet, stradle jump to camel landing, standing long jump with lateral sprint, standing triple jump, standing triple jump with barrier jump.

The forward jump used is a standing jump over barrier, which starts with standing on two shoulder-width legs, then jumps forward by passing a barrier with the legs buckling and landing on two legs, the body must remain in a straight line.
Standing jump dengan variasi standing jump over barrier
Standing jump with variations of standing jump over barrier

The next technique used on multiple hop and jumps suggested by Chu with variations hexagon drill, front cone hops, diagonal cone hops, rim jumps, cone hops with change of direction sprint, cone hops with 180-degree turn, double leg hops, lateral cone hops, single barrier hop, standing long jumps with hurdle hops, stadium hops.

This technique starts with a variety of jumps like jump ahead, sideways, backward. Can be done with one foot or two foot pedestal. In the picture below is used pedestal two feet of the hop barrier to the side and fore.
multiple hop and jumps dengan barrier hop
Multiple hop and jumps with barrier hop

The next drills are upgraded to box drills, box drills can be done with variations of alternating push-offs, single leg push-offs, lateral step-ups, side-to-side box shuffles, front box jumps, lateral box jumps, multiple box- box jumps, pyramiding box hops, multiple box-to-box squat jumps, multiple box-to-box jumps with single leg landing.

The forward jumps used are multiple box-to-box jumps, which starts with standing on two shoulder-width legs, then skip ahead with landing on the box, then jump down again and jump into the box and so on, other variations but landed on two legs, the body must remain in a straight line.


box drills dengan multiple box-to-box jumps
box drills with multiple box-to-box jumps

The form of exercise is enhanced by depth jumps exercises, which are jumping from a certain height with variations of techniques such as; jump from box, jump to box, step-close jump-and-reach, depth jump, depth jump to prescribed height, incline push-up depth jump, squat depth jump, single leg depth jump, depth jump with lateral movement, depth jump with stuff, depth jump with blocking bag, depth jump to single leg barrier hops.

Implementing the depth jump to single leg barrier hops, ie jumping from the box then jump hop through obstacles with one foot repulsion.
box drills dengan front box jump
box drills with front box jump

The most important understanding in plyometrics exercises is that the muscle state in the ready state of muscle ability to be trained and enhanced should be done gradually. So many posts this time may be useful for all readers.

Source :
Chu, Donald. A. 1992, Jumping into plyometrics. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Pub.,
Richard Godfrey. 2006. Detraining – Why a change really is better than a rest” p.1.