Anatomy and Physiology of the Core Muscles in Training the Abdominal Muscles. This article will discuss the details of the anatomy and physiology of the core muscles when exercising the abdominal muscles. In terms of anatomy, Core muscle consists of a cylindrical muscle that envelopes the inner lining of the stomach.
Anatomy of the Core Muscles
The core muscle consists of 4 major muscle groups:
- Transverse abdominal muscle, the deepest part of the abdominal muscle beneath the internal oblique muscle, the external oblique and the rectus abdomens, this muscle is considered to be a corset that supports stability,
- The multifidal muscle, the inner back muscle that lies between the vertebral bones that connects each lumbar vertebral bone, its function extends vertebra well and becomes the postural core muscle that keeps the vertebrae upright,
- Diaphragm muscle, is the primary muscle to breathe. When the transverse abdomens muscles contract, the diaphragm tightens to maintain the pressure on the abdomen resulting in stability in the vertebrae,
- The pelvic floor muscles, composed of the pelvic organs outside the peritoneum, the endopelvic fascia, and the 3 layers of muscle groups. These muscles contract together with the transverse abdominal muscles that form the lower cylindrical muscles. When these four muscle groups work harmoniously in a series of complex contractions with dozens of spinal muscles, the torso and surroundings require stability to achieve a neutral position during body movement and maintain a stable position in the vertebra.
Physiology of Core Muscle in Training the Abdominal Muscles
Physiologically, core stability exercises enable slow twitch muscle fiber, with repeated maximal contractions to increase the strength of abdominal muscles until the muscles become tense or hypertrophy and muscle endurance can be obtained from the length of time to withstand the maximum contraction of slow twitch muscle fiber.
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To increase the contraction, fast twitch muscle fiber is also contracted maximally quickly and repeatedly so that muscle tone fast twitch muscle fiber increased to hypertrophy. Achieving hypertrophy muscles to near maximum can be achieved within 4 to 8 weeks.
By strengthening the supporting muscles and improving the posture of the spine, it effectively decreases the symptoms of low back pain and improves its functional activity.
The strength of this muscle in our body will result in the stability of the body's core, it can be useful also in producing effective and efficient movement.
In more detail, core stability is the interaction of coordination and strength between the abdominal muscles, back muscles, diaphragm muscles and butt muscles during activity to ensure the spine remains stable and supports both to remain strong in daily movement (Brandon and Raphael, 2009).
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