Energy and Energy Systems in Sports

Sunday, January 29, 2017

Energy and Energy Systems in Sports

Energy in sports

Energy is power to do work. Although it is known in various forms, energy is generally measured by "therm kilocalories" (kcal). There are two forms of energy, potential energy and kinetic energy.

Potential energy source obtained everywhere. For example, body the jumper that rises toward the diving board energy has huge potential. The potential for doing this work clearly demonstrated when the jumper leaves the diving board and fell quickly into the pool below. The potential energy is also stored in the form of heat and electricity as well as in the composition of chemicals such as foodstuff.

Kinetic energy is motion energy, and therefore can be observed in sports activities. In athletics we often look at the transfer of potential energy into kinetic energy quickly. In the example cited previously, the potential energy of jumping quickly transformed into kinetic energy when the descending movement occurs.

Similarly, the back of the soccer midfielder who sprinted onto the field demonstrating high levels of kinetic energy.

The main concept of the energy concluded in the basic law of physics. Namely, the energy is not created nor destroyed, but it can be deformed. So an athlete do not create energy, as well as not to damage or limit it. But they continually change the shape of the potential chemical energy into mechanical kinetic energy. Changes in the form of energy is the basis of muscle activity.
Energy and Energy Systems in Sports

Energy Systems in Sports

The energy comes from the breakdown of food is used to form the chemical compound adenosine Triphospate (ATP) which is deposited in the mitochondria of muscle, though the amount accumulated in the muscles is also very limited, which is 4-6 mM / kg muscle. ATP is only sufficient for fast and heavy activity for 3-8 seconds, and therefore for long activities immediately needed ATP back (Fox, 1984: 27).

According to Fox, (1988: 15) The process of reforming the energy in the muscle, can be obtained through three ways:
1. ATP-PC system (Phospagen System)
2. The lactic acid system
3. Aerobic Systems

Three Energy Systems

ATP-PC system (Phospagen System)
Phospagen system involves phosphocreatin. Phosphocreatin are chemical compounds that are also found in muscle cells (Soekarman, 1991: 11). Phosphocreatin (PC) is a little too approximately four times the amount of ATP, but the PC contributed quickest energy to form ATP back. Molecules of ATP and PC in the muscles just enough to supply energy to the maximum activity for 20-30 seconds (Bowers, 1982: 20). The maximum activity such as jumps, kicks, punches and other quick movements.

Although energy can be arise very little, but it is particularly useful reserve for sudden movement. The reaction of ATP and PC this solution in the cell takes place very quickly, immediately ATP is used PCs will soon split and liberate energy to reshape the ATP.

According bowers (1992: 79), after 60 seconds of rest, recovery of ATP-PC about 75% and 180 seconds after a break of about 98% ATP-PC has been reshaped. With the above characteristics contained conclusions that it takes the right exercises to increase reserves in the ATP-PC muscle.

The Lactid Acid System
These systems convert glucose or glycogen in muscle cell cytoplasm into energy and lactic acid. Lactic acid system occurs when the mitochondria oxygen deficiency so that the pyruvic acid that should enter into the mitochondria turn into lactic acid (Brooks, 1985: 412-418).

Lactic acid is formed in the anaerobic glycolysis will lower the pH in the muscles and blood, thus inhibiting the enzyme or chemical reactions in the body, especially in the muscle cell itself. These barriers cause muscle contractions getting weaker and eventually exhausted. (Janssen, 1989: 12; Soekarman, 1991: 16).

Soekarman (1991: 15) concludes the characteristics of lactic acid system (anaerobic glycolysis) as follows:
  • Cause the formation of lactic acid which can lead to fatigue.
  • Does not require oxygen.
  • Only use carbohydrates.
  • Providing energy to resintesis few molecules of ATP.

Aerobic System

Aerobic energy system is a process of energy formation requires the presence of oxygen (O2) so that the process can run perfectly to generate ATP.

The aerobic system includes oxidation of carbohydrates, fats and proteins stored in cells. The oxidation process takes place in the mitochondria. (McArdle, 1986: 75). Energy (ATP) produced by this oxidation process, far more than the anaerobic glycolysis. Protein oxidation occurs only in a very urgency situation.

REFERENCE
  • Bompa TO. 1994. Theory and Methodology of Training The Key to Athletic Performance. 2nd Edition, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Pp 2-14, 57-69, 213-257.
  • Bowers RW, Fox EL. 1992. Sport Physiology. New York: Wm C Brown Publishiner, pp 185-218.
  • Brooks GA, Fahey TD. 1985. Anaerobic Threshold: Review of The Concept and Direction for Future Research. Med Sci Sport 17(1): 412-418.
  • Fox EL. 1984. Sport Physiology. 2nd Edition. Tokyo: Saunders College Publishing, pp 1-150, 202-230.
  • Fox EL, Bowers RW, Foss ML. 1988. The Physiological Basis of Physical Education and Athletic, 4th Edition. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, pp 12-82, 205-315.
  • Janssen PGJM. 1998. Training Lactate Pulse-Rate. New York: Polar Elektro of Publish, pp 12-24, 50-61, 81-105.
  • McArdle WD, Katch FI. Exercise Physiology: Energy Nutrition and Human Performance. 2nd Edition . Philadelphia: Lea & Fabiger, pp 80-125, 234-304.
  • Soekarman. 1991. Enersi dan sistem Predominan pada Olahraga. Jakarta: Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia Pusat, hal. 7-45.